Bhagavad Geeta  – Introduction and Chapter 1 – Vishaada Yoga (Yoga of Melancholy)

School of Yoga explains the Bhagavad Geeta 1 : Vishaad Yoga (Yoga of Melancholy)

Bhagavad Geeta Overview: No single text discusses or explains the many philosophies which fall under the umbrella of Sanatana Dharma. Sanatana Dharma philosophy encompasses multiple schools of thought or shakas which are subdivided into sub-schools or pravara. Further, these get subdivided further depending on interpretation, region, culture, practice and most importantly, guru.

Consequently, this vast plethora of options can often confuse the practitioner, resulting in some abandoning their search for the truth or looking for simpler solutions. However, these simpler systems generally have rigid rules for easy understanding and application, which constrict experimentation or personalisation. 

Importantly, this open philosophical format allows for three major adjustments;

  1. First, it allows one to change philosophical direction multiple times.
  2. Next, it allows one to rearrange philosophical construct to suit personality & aspirations. This means that it allows one to borrow from various philosophical streams.
  3. Eventually, this open format structure allows practitioners to adapt their spiritual path to changes brought by age and experience.

School of Yoga explains the importance of the Bhagavad Geeta:

The significance of the Bhagavad Geeta should be viewed in the light of its importance in the overall philosophy of Yoga.

  • The ancient Indian philosophical basis is that all existence is impermanent and a farce or illusion (maaya).
  • Illusion (maaya) rises from Brahman which is a state of imperishable equilibrium or peace, or a state where there is no change.
  • Thus, only the Brahman is permanent, everything else is impermanent or relative. Also, the Brahman is known as the Truth, so there is only one absolute Truth, everything else is maaya.
  • Everything in this illusionary state of relativity and impermanence has a natural state (dharma). When anything is in this natural state (dharma), it is at material or thermodynamic equilibrium.
  • Dharma applies to all entities, from an atom to the primordial elements such as earth, water, fire, air and ether; from the earth to the universe.
  • It includes everything, sentient and insentient, even systems, processes, businesses, travel and countries. Since this natural state of peace covers everything, it is called sanatana-dharma or universal natural state.
  • In fact, everything in maaya (illusion) is governed by sanatana-dharma.  
  • Importantly, by the very nature of maaya, material equilibrium or dharma, is continuously subjected to both, sentient and insentient stimuli, hence this equilibrium is constantly getting upset by change, which is called adharma (chaos).
  • Consequently, this creates imbalance in the system and since any system that goes out of balance never returns to its original state, chaos (adharma), or entropy (measure of randomness in any system) is forever continuously increasing. 
  • The ancient seers (rshis) of this land realised that while realisation of Brahman was the main objective of existence, existence itself had to be structured so that chaos in daily living was minimised and individuals were naturally empowered by life structures to migrate towards the Truth.
  • Hence, they integrated this philosophy into the lifestyle of the individual and society so that each life activity could assist the person in transcending maaya naturally and reaching Brahman.
  • The system that they worked out is called Hinduism today. Interestingly, Hinduism cannot be called a religion in the traditional sense because it has no dogma. It only has philosophical schools (pravara) which follow broad based practices but these too have a very open structure and a lot of overlap with other philosophical schools in their construct and practices.
Let us look at this system briefly;
  • The philosophical basis of Hinduism are the Vedas, which are considered to be apourushika which can be translated as “not of man”, meaning that they were composed by rishis or seers when in a state of complete merger with the Brahman. There are four Vedas (Rig, Yajur, Sama, Atharva).
    • The Vedas are followed by Vedanga (limb of the Vedas) which are six auxiliary disciplines that help in maintaining the purity of the Vedas. These are;
      • shiksha (phonetics or enunciation of Sanskrit),
      • chandas (metering or how the verses should be chanted),
      • vyaakarana (grammar or linguistic analysis),
      • nirukta (explanation of certain words which are not generally used in everyday living),
      • kalpa (passage of life or life event rites) and
      • jyotisha (astrology).
    • Vedaanga are followed by Vedaanta or Upanishads which elaborate the qualities of Brahman as well as process of renunciation by simplifying the philosophy without diluting it, through explanations, comparison, storytelling (example – kathopanshad) and other means.
    • Puraanas are the next level of simplification for easy understanding of the Brahman and these cover life stories of people who transcended physical existence to realise the Brahman.
  • While the above structure is an iterative and simplification process covered the philosophical and intellectual aspects of Brahman, another approach was required for implementation of the above philosophy at a daily level and these were;
    • Dharma-sootraas or Sutras which covered every aspect of physical existence. The intent was to condition behaviour of society and people with constant focus on transcending maaya and living in peace, so that transcending physical existence to realise the Brahman became a transition in life. 
    • However, dharma-sootraas could not be applied to everyone, since people had different socio-environmental stresses, so these sootraas had to be adapted for local and regional preferences. Consequently, these local nuances became known as sampradaaya. For example, rice and fish is a staple of Bengal and all religious and cultural events have both, rice and fish. In Punjab food is wheat based, while in the South and East of India it is predominantly rice based.

Thus, we can see that this philosophical system has some noteworthy features;

  • First, it is personal because it allows moulding of the philosophy to the person’s background, capability and outlook. There is no wrong path, there is only the effort, learning and the transition.
  • Second, since Brahman is an infinite unchanging peace, by its very nature it requires orientation towards realizing peace, balance and harmony among all people and societies. To this end, this makes Hinduism the most natural, organic and scientific philosophy ever created by mankind. By its nature, it adapts to external influence, and is never in conflict with any alien thought or civilisational pressure or dharma. Finally, this philosophy is unique because it does not seek to establish political or social ascendency over anyone because of its core belief that all creation is equal.
  • Thirdly, Hinduism believes that every creation has a soul that has the potential to transcend maya and eventually merge with the Brahman. This covers everything from a lowly atom to the solar system. Hence, it does not restrict spiritual development to man alone. In fact, since man is intellectually superior, it places an onerous leadership responsibility on man to ensure health and harmony of the complete ecosystem. These are called pancha-maha-yagnya (five great sacrifices).
  • Lastly, Hinduism is secular by design because it recognises that there are many distinct paths to realise Brahman and these paths need to be personalised to the natural capabilities of the seeker.

This is why Hinduism is not a religion but a “way of life”.

School of Yoga explains sanatana-dharma and its logical construction:

The ancient seers or rshis specified that any philosophical hypothesis should satisfy certain testing rules that are called pramanas (rules of evidence). All pramanas are based on experience and logic, hence can be personalised.

The pramanas are – pratyaksha (personal vision or experience of logic), anumana (inference through application of rules of nature), upamana (comparison and analogy with various logical constructs that have been accepted as valid), arthapatti (postulation and derivation from evidence), anupalabdhi (non-apprehension or negative cognitive proof) and sabda (verbal testimony).

Some examples of pramanas:

Pratyaksha or personal experience: This is the most effective source of proof because it is based on personal experience. 

Example: Assume that you are walking down a street and see someone walking unsteadily in front of you. Generally, you would assume that he is drunk and feel disgust. However, as you overtake him, if you were to see that the person ill or in pain, your attitude would change immediately.

Any change in perception has been brought about by personal experience in the situation is pratyaksha or personal experience. 

Anumana or inference from experience: This is the drawing of a conclusion based on prior knowledge, like assuming that if there is smoke, there must be fire.

Example: Assume that you are a parent whose child has been consistently getting good marks and grades. If in one exam, the child’s marks were to deteriorate unexpectedly, you would rightly assume from experience that the situation needs investigation. This is anumana or inference drawn from experience.

Upamana or comparison based on experience:

Example: We know that domestic dogs are similar to street dogs because we compare their form and function. Consequently, comparison based on experience which allows us to recognise dogs as different from wolves, foxes or hyenas when we go on a wild life safari. 

This ability to compare and conclude is upamana or comparison from experience.

Arthapatti or postulation derived from evidence:

Example: All businesses create forecasts based on prior performance and future potential. These projections are based on analysis of prior performance, examination of current business situation, resources and risk.

The accuracy of any forecast depends on the analyst’s experience and exposure to various aspects of the business being forecasted.

This is arthapatti or postulation derived from evidence. 

Anupalabdhi or negative cognitive proof:

Anupalabdhi is the ability to recognise a missing aspect of any problem being analysed.

Example: Assume that you are collating all your documents for an interview and you find your birth certificate missing.

Since, you recognise the absence of the certificate, you will initiate a search. This is anupalabdhi or negative cognitive proof.

Sabda or verbal testimony: This is a commonly used pramana or proof of existence.

Example: You are a manager with many sales representatives reporting to you. While, you may go with a few on customer visits, you will rely on verbal inputs or sabda of your subordinates to assess the state of your operations. 

Conclusion: one can see that this system does not prescribe, it allows one to seek, make mistakes, correct in small and incremental steps, called anubhava or experience to reach the truth or state of Brahman. Obviously, this means that aspirant needs to have enormous drive, persistence and patience (sharaddha) to overcome frustration and failure.

This also means that the aspirant is faced with many paths, all leading to ONE TRUTH, Brahman and most importantly, it is personal to the practitioner.

School of Yoga explains the value of the Guru:

In this open philosophical format for reaching the Truth, there is need for someone who can help the aspirant navigate the various paths (marga). Such a person is called a Guru (weighty one or darkness = gu to light = ru).

Guru may be defined as a teacher, guide or anchor who pounds and pestles all delusions or ajnana out of the aspirant and directs him or her to the truth. So, the Guru must have the discriminatory ability (vivekam) and dispassion (vairagyam) to pierce the delusions and apprehensions that cloud the student and offer solutions.

Oriental systems and practices clearly enunciate the quality or attitude with which the aspirant must approach the Guru. It should be one of surrender or sharanagati, which roughly translates to “I surrender my speed to you”. “Speed” here means “speed of movement of the sense of Self”. Consequently, sharanagati means that the aspirant no longer exists as an individual, but as a tool of the Guru, to be moulded, used or discarded as the Guru wishes (read about the ancient Gurukula system, link enclosed). Therefore, this also means that once the aspirant surrenders, he or she should not judge the Guru, but submit without reservation.

Indeed, there are very few known yogis who have reached the Truth without a Guru – chief among them being Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Ramana Maharishi.

School of Yoga explains the background of the Bhagavad-Geeta

The Bhagavad Geeta is the only text that covers most of the paths to realisation of the Truth or Brahman. It does not prescribe any solution, that is for the aspirant to find – if one is lucky, at the feet of a Guru. Since it does not prescribe, the Bhagavad Geeta is not a religious text just as Sanatana Dharma is not a religion. In fact, one could adhere to any religion and follow the concepts in the Bhagavad Geeta to reach the Truth.

The Bhagavad Geeta was composed on a battlefield, more specifically an internecine, fratricidal civil war where the warring factions were all kinsmen. The protagonist, warrior Prince and ace archer Arjuna is beset by fear of chaos which would ensue when so many died and his own personal grief at the thought of losing so many kinsmen as he reviews the battlefield situation. His doubts are answered by Sri Krishna, his charioteer and this forms the background of the text.

The conversation between Arjuna and Sri Krishna mirrors our own state in many situations.

  • It starts with internal confusion and conflict at the chaos arising from consequences.
  • Then, as we read the Bhagavad Geeta, it moves to understanding the nature of permanence or the Brahman.
  • Next, we learn about work and duty. Also, we learn about how to work without losing our sense of Self (asmita).
  • This followed by an explanation of the many paths that we can take to re-establish equilibrium.
  • Finally, there is the understanding of the system and society (vijnaana), which is followed by our understanding of the Self (jnaana).
  • So, the Bhagawat Geeta is actually a manual which each of us can use to navigate the labyrinth called “Life”.

Timelines – There are some who have calculated the dates of the Mahabharata battle (commonly called Kurukshetra War) as follows:

  • Start – Mrigasheera Shukla Ekadashi = 8th December BCE 3139
  • End – 25th December BCE 3139.

Some details of its structure – The Bhagavad Geeta is made up of 18 chapters, each chapter is a description of a Yoga or method for harmonising).

These 18 chapters are broadly categorised as

  • Chapters 1- 6          Karma Khand –       Volume of action
  • Chapters 7 – 12       Upanyasa Khand – Volume of proof and
  • Chapters 13 – 18     Jnyaana Khand –    Volume of knowledge

These 18 chapters contain 700 couplets as a conversation that includes 4 participants – the King Dhrithashtra (1 couplet), Sanjaya who oversees the conversation between Arjuna and Sri Krishna (40 couplets), Prince Arjuna who is the confused protagonist (85 couplets) and Sri Krishna (564 couplets).

Importantly, the Bhagavad Geeta is the only significant world-text that has its own birthday or Jayanthi. It is celebrated on the 11th day of the waxing moon in the month of Margashirsha.

School of Yoga explains Sri Krishna:

It is important to understand Sri Krishna. In Mahabharata, Sri Krishna operates as two personas – a Puranic personality Sri Krishna who lived in the period and the Yogi, who had reached a particular state of perfection. Often, it is easy to confuse the person from the yogi. This is a confusion that will last throughout the Bhagavad-Geeta; 

  • Biological father – Vasudeiva (Yadava Clan)
  • Biological Mother – Devaki (Ughra Race)
  • Brother – Balaraama
  • Sister – Subhadra
  • Birthplace – Gokul,
  • Birth details:
    • Date – 18 July, 3228 BCE,
    • Month – Shravan,
    • Thithi – Ashtami (eighth day of the waning moon),
    • Nakshatra – Rohini,
    • Day – Wednesday,
    • Time – 00:00 (midnight)
  • Mathura Wives: Rukmini, Satyabhama, Jambhavati, Kalindi, Mitravinda, Naagnajiti, Bhadra, Lakshmana.
  • Death details: 18th Feb 3102. Age at death: 125 years, 8 months and 7 days.

Krishna migrated from Mathura to Vrindavan at age 9, staying in Vrindavan till age 14-16. Thereafter, he killed his maternal uncle Kamsa and released his parents who had been imprisoned by Kamsa. Following this, he migrated to Dwaraka and never returned.

He died 36 years after Kurukshetra war, in 3103 BCE, when the present-day Kali Yuga is said to have begun.

Bhagavad Geeta – Chapter 1: Vishaada Yoga (Yoga of Melancholy)

Dhrithrashtra, the blind father of the Kauravas, asks Sanjaya to explain the scene of battle at Kurukshetra. Having seen the Pandavas arrayed in battle opposite them, the Kaurava King Duryodhana approached his Guru Dronacharya and sought benediction and confidence. In response, Dronacharya blew his battle conch, infusing confidence into the Kaurava Army.  Likewise, the Pandavas blew on their conches and there was a general exchange of drums and conches. Amidst this, Arjuna asked Sri Krishna to drive between the opposing armies so that he may see the opposing forces. Sri Krishna, his charioteer for the battle, did as asked.

Arjuna is despondent

Seeing his kinsmen and close relatives on the opposite site, each preparing to slaughter the other, Arjuna spoke with great sorrow that he had lost the strength and confidence to fight and began to question the very premise on which they had gone to battle, saying;

  • I do not wish to kill anyone.
  • What good will come out of this slaughter?
  • How can we be happy killing our own kinsmen despite the fact that their greed does not allow them to have softer sentiments?
  • The destruction of any family will result in corruption and destruction of all known social hierarchies and systems. Consequently, this is a great Sin.
  • Putting down his bow, in distress and sorrow Arjuna said – I won’t fight.

Example 1:

You have been cheated of your property by a close relative. You are angry, frustrated and vengeful. You go to your lawyer to seek retribution. There, the lawyer explains the consequences of your action, the costs, efforts and risks…. You begin to have doubts on whether to proceed.

  • What is the difference in emotions between before and after your meeting with the lawyer?
  • The truth that you have been cheated has not changed. Your desire for justice has not changed, neither has the loss faced by you…
    • What has happened?
    • Why have you changed?
    • What is the change? 

Example 2:

You are dismayed at your annual appraisal rating and feel that it does not reflect your effort and contribution to the organisation. Consequently, you meet your immediate boss but his explanation does not satisfy you. So, you decide to go to the Head of the department. As you enter, you realise that your immediate boss will probably not be sympathetic to your action. Finally, you also realise that the Head may not be able to help! You feel nervous, experience palpitation and an unknown fear… 

  • Why are you afraid? 
  • What are you afraid of?
  • How do you deal with the anxiety?
  • Why do you constantly worry about the consequences of your action?
  • What is the role of Dharma (conditioning) in your ability to deal with situations?

These are examples of Arjuna’s experiences when he examines the potential consequences of his action. 

School of Yoga posits views that may be contrary to accepted positions: 

The Bhagavad-Geeta is not a book on religion. By religion, we mean any system of thought that has principles, procedures and rules that need to be followed and are considered inviolable.

Though many people consider Hinduism to be a religion, it is not. In fact, there is no such thing as Hinduism. That system of living which is followed in the land known as India has no name.

The Bhagavad-Geeta does not have any dogma, principle or rules. It allows a practitioner to yoke his or her natural instincts with the state of peace in any manner that the person may find comfortable. Essentially, this means that the person works on his or her physical, emotional and intellectual strengths and weaknesses continuously to remain in peace.

This is why the Bhagavad-Geeta is a Yoga.

School of Yoga explains the lesson learned in Chapter 1

All of us face internal and external conflicts which result in stress and a feeling of melancholy. Often, internal stresses come from external factors such as job loss, negative annual appraisal and grading, conflicts at home or disagreements with friends etc. Internal factors can be perceived gap between expectation and achievement, inability to finish tasks, poor time management, obsession, loneliness etc.

This happens to all of us, the starting point in all situations is confusion, melancholy, internal conflict and stress, anxiety at the possible outcome etc. This is the reality that the Bhagavad-Geeta uses as a foundation to build the open architecture of sanatana-dharma which gets detailed over the next seventeen chapters.

The Transliteration of The Bhagavad-Geeta Chapter 1 follows:

The Sanskrit words are in red italics and meaning, before the words, are in black.

Dhrithrashtra said (1) At the field of correctness, at Kurukshetra, what is the status of my people and also Pandavas who have gathered with a desire for battle (dharma-kshetre-kuruk-kshetre-samaceda-yuyutsavaha-mamakaha-pandavaha-cha-eva-kim-akurvata-sanjaya).

Sanjaya said (2-4) having indeed seen the armies of Pandavas in battle array, Duryodhana, the king, approached his teacher and said (dhrishtva-tu-paandava-neekam-vyoodah-duryodhana-thatha-aacharyam-upasamgamaya-raja-vachanam-abhraveet). Teacher, behold here the great army the sons of Pandu, marshalled by the son of Dhrupada, your talented student (pashyaitam-paandava-putraanam-acharya-mahateem-chamoom-vyoodaan-drupada-putrena-tava-sishya-dheemata). Here are daring warriors, great archers, equal to Bhima and Arjuna in battle, Yuyudhana, Viraata and Drupada the great charioteer (atra-shoora-maheshvaasa-bheema-arjuna-sama-yuddhi-yuyudhaano-viraataha-cha-drupada-cha-mahaarathaha).

(5-7) Drishtaketu and Chiketana, King of Kashi and valiant Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Saibyaha and best of men (dhrishtaketu-chekitaanaha-kaashiraajaha-cha-veeryavaan-purujit-kuntibhoja-cha-shaibhyaha-cha-narapumgavaha). Yudhamanyhu and courageous Uttamouja and the brave son of Subhadra and Draupati and all great charioteers (yudhamanyu-cha-vikrantaha-uttamoujaha-cha-veeryavaan-soubhadraha-draupadeyaha-cha-sarve-eva-maharathaha). Ours also distinguished chiefs those who are knowledgeble, best of twice-born, the leaders of my army, for information, I will recount to you (asmaakam-tu-vishishta-ye-taan-nibhodha-dvijjottam-naayakaha-mama-sainyasya-sanjyaartham-taan-bravimi-te).

(8-10) Yourself, Bhishma and Karna and Kripa and Ashwattama, victorious in war, and even Vikarna, son of Somadatta, (bhavaan-bhishma-cha-karnaha-cha-kripaha-cha-samitim-jayah-ashwattam-vikarnaha-cha-soumadattih-thatha-eva-cha). And many other heroes, for me willing to sacrifice their lives, armed with various weapons, all well skilled in battle (anya-cha-bhavaha-shoora-madh-arthe-thyakth-jeevitah-naanaa-shastra-paharana-sarve-yuddha-visharadha). Unlimited is our strength, marshalled by Bhishma, while their army marshalled by Bhima is insufficient (aparyaaptam-tat-asmaakam-balam-bheeshma-abhirakshataam-paryaaptam-tu-idam-eteshaam-balam-bheem-abhirakshitaam).

(11-13) Indeed, within and everywhere, the strength of the divisions is deployed to protect Bhishma alone (ayeshu-cha-sarveshu-yatha-bhaagam-avasthitha-bhishma-eva-abhirakshantu-bhavantaha-sarva-eva-hi). Therefore, expressing happiness, the oldest of the Kurus, the grandfather loudly let out a lion’s roar and blew his mighty conch (tasya-sanjanayan-harsham-kuruvriddhaha-pitamahaha-simha-naadan-vinagha-uchai-shankham-dadhamou-pratapaavan). Then, conchs and kettledrums and tabors, drums and cow-horns suddenly blared forth in a sound that was tumultuous (tatah-shankha-cha-bheryaha-cha-paNav-aanak-gomukhaha-sahasa-eva-abhya-hanyanta-saha-shabda-tumulaha-abhavataha).

(14-16) Then, seated on a magnificent war-chariot yoked with white horses Madhava and son of Pandu also blew their divine conches (tatah-shweta-hahaihi-yukte-mahati-syandane-sthithou-madhavaha-paandavaha-cha-eva-divyau-shankhai-pradhadhmatuh). Panchajanyam of Hrishikesha, Devadattam of Dhananjaya and Poundra was blown by the doer of terrible deeds, Bhima (panchajanyam-hrshikesha-devattam-dhananjayaha-poundran-dhadhmou-maha-shankham-bheema-karma-vrkodaraha). Raja Kuntiputra Yudhishtira blew the Anantavijayam, Nakul and Sahadeva blew conches named Sughosha and Manipushpaka (ananthvijayam-raaja-kuntiputro-yudhishtiraha-nakulaha-sahadevascha-sughosham-manipushpakou).

(17-20) Supreme archer Kasya, Shikhandi and Drishtadyumna, Viraata and unconquered Satyaki (kaashasya-cha-paramisvasah-shikhandi-cha-maha-rathaha-dhrishtadyumna-viraata-cha-satyaki-cha-aparijita). Drupada, sons of Draupati and all lords of the Earth and the mighty armed son of Subhadra blew their conches one after another (drupado-droupadeyascha-sarveshaha-prithiveepathe-soubhadrascha-mahabahuhu-shankaan-dudmuh-prathak-prathak). That tumultuous resounding battle sound rent the hearts of Dhrithrashtra’s team, from sky to earth (sa-ghoso-dhrthrashtranaam-hrdayani-vyadaarayath-nabhasch-prithveem-cha-eva-tumulou-vyanunaadayan). Now, monkey banner seeing the arrayed Drithirashtas people about to begin discharge of weapons, son of Pandu, taking up the bow then said this to Hrishikesaam, Lord of the Earth (atha-vyavasthithaan-drishtva-dhaarthraashtaan-kapidhvajaha-pravrithe-shaastra-sampate-dhanuhu-udhamya-paandavaha-hrishikeshaam-tadha-vaakyam-idam-aaha-mahipate.

Arjuna said (21-23) Place my chariot in the middle of the armies, Achuta (senayoho-ubhayoho-madhye-ratham-sthapaya-me-achyutha). I wish to see who has assembled here with the intention of fighting, and must be fought by me, in this eve of battle (yaavat-nirikshe-aham-yoddhu-kaamaan-avasthithaan-kaha-maya-saha-yodhavyam-asmin-raN-samudyame). I wish to observe who among those who wish to please the deviant minded sons of Drithrashtra (yothsyamaanaan-avekshye-aham-yaha-yeth-atra-samaa-gataaha-dhrathrasya-durbuddhe-yuddhe-priyachikeersavaha).

Sanjaya said (24-27) Having been addressed by Gudakesa, Bhaarata, Hrishikesha placed the supreme of chariots between the armies. (evam-uktah-hrishikeshaha-goodakeshene-bhaarata-senayoho-ubhayo-madhye-sthapayiythva-ratha-uttam). In front of Bhishma and Drona and all other rulers of the earth, Parth said, behold the Kurus gathered here (bheeshma-drona-sarvesaam-cha-maheekshitaam-uvaacha-parth-pasha-etan-samavetaan-kuroon-iti). Stationed there, Partha saw, fathers, also, grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, companions, fathers-in-law, friends and also warriors from both sides (tatra-upashyate-sthithaan-paarth-pitrn-atha-pitamahaan-aacharyaan-maathulaan-bhrathrn-putran-pouthraan-sakheen-thatha-shvashuraan-suhrdaha-cha-eva-senayoho-ubhayoho-api). Having seen all these relatives standing, filled with deep pity and sorrow, Kounteya said (tasan-sameeksha-sah-kounteya-sarvaan-bandhoon-avasthithaan-kripaya-paryaa-aavishtah-visheedan-idam-abhraveet).

Arjuna said (28-30) Seeing my people, arrayed and eager to fight, my limbs fail me, and my mouth is getting parched (drishtva-imam-sva-janam-yuyutsum-sama-upa-sthitham-seedanthi-mama-gaatraNi-mukham-cha-parishushyati). My body is shivering and I am getting goosepimples, the Gandiva is slipping from my hand and my skin is burning (vepathuhu-cha-sharire–me-romaharsha-cha-jayate-gaandivam-sramsate-hastat-tvak-cha-eva-paridahyate). I am unable to stand, it seems that my mind whirls with omens and I see adversity (na-cha-shaknomi-avastaatum-bhramateev-cha-me-manaha-nimmittani-cha-pashyami-vipatitaani).

(31-34) And no good I see in killing my people in battle, I do not desire victory, and not kingdom and other pleasures (na-cha-shreyo-anupashyami-hatva-sva-janam-aahave-na-kaankse-vijayam-na-cha-raajyam-sukhani-cha). What will this kingdom give to us? What pleasure will be get in life? (kim-no-rajyena-kim-bhogaihi-jeevitena-va). The reason we desire enjoyment of kingdom pleasures, they stand ready to give life in battle, having abandoned wealth (yesham-arthe-kaanksitam-no-raajyam-bhogaha-sukhani-cha-tha-ime-avasthithaha-yuddhe-pranaan-tyaktva-dhanaani-cha). Teachers, fathers, sons and grandfathers, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-laws as well as relatives (aacharyaha-pitaraha-putraha-tathaiva-cha-pitamahaha-mathulaha-shvashuraaha-poutraha-shyalaaha-sambandinas-thatha).

(35-37) I do not wish to kill them even if I am killed by them, or for the sake of domination of the three worlds, then why would I do it for earth? (etan-hantum-icchami-ghataha-api-api-trailokya-raajyasya-hetoho-kim-na-mahikrte). What pleasure will we get by killing the sons of Dhrithrashtra, killing these terrorists will only stain us (nihaty-dhartharashtra-nah-ka-preethihi-syaat-paapam-eva-aashrayet-asmaan-hatva-etaan-aatatayinaha). So, we are not justified in killing the sons of Dhrithrashtra, our relatives and kinsmen, indeed, how can we be happy after killing them (tasmaat-na-arha-vayam-hantum-dhaartharaahtraan-svabhaandhavaan-svajanam-hi-katham-hatva-sukheena-syaama).

(38-40) Although these do not see due to intelligence overpowered by greed, the wretchedness wrought by destruction of the clans, and crime brought by hostility to friends (yadyapi-ete-na-pashyanti-lobha-pahata-chetasa-kula-kshaya-kritam-dosham-mitr-droha-cha-paatakam). When I clearly comprehend the wretchedness in the destruction of the clan, why not turn away from this clearly inappropriate act (katham-na-jnyayeyam-asmihi-paapaat-asmaat-nivirtitum-kula-ksaya-krtam-dosham-prapasyadbhih). When the clan perishes, immemorial clan balances and universal practices are destroyed, the whole clan is overcome by chaos indeed (kula-kshaye-praNashyanti-kuladharma-sanatanaha-nashte-kulam-kritsnam-adharma-abhi-bhavati).

(41-43) With the onset of chaos, clan women get corrupted, from women becoming corrupted, mixing of colours occurs (adharma-abhi-bhavaat-pradushyanti-kulastriyaha-strishu-dushtasu-jayate-varNa-samkaraha). Confusion resembling hell exists for killers of the clan from the clan because the forefathers are denied their offering of rice and water (sankaro-nara-kayaiva-kulagnaanam-kulasya-cha-patanti-pitaraha-hi-eshaam-lupta-pindodaka-kriya). Staining by destroyers of the clans causes intermingling of various people, eternal community practices are destroyed as are clan rituals and practices (doshaihi-etaihi-kulaghnanam-varNa-sankara-kaarkaihi-utsahdyante-jaati-dharma-kuladharmaha-cha-sasvataha).

(44-46) Those men, whose clan practices are destroyed, we have heard that they stay in hell for an indefinite period (utsanna-kula-dharmaanaam-manushyaNaam-aniyatam-vaasaha-bhavati-iti-anususruma). Alas, we are prepared to do great wretchedness and kill our kinsmen for the pleasure of kingdom (aho-bath-mahat-paapam-kartum-vyavasita-vayam-yadraajya-sukh-lobhan-hantun-svajana-mudhataha). If the sons of Dhartrashtra were to kill me unresisting and unarmed, with their weapons in hand in the battlefield, that would be better (yadi-maam-apratikaaram-asastram-shastrapaanayaha-dhaartarashtraha-rane-hanyuhu-tath-me-kshemataram-bhavet).

Sanjaya said (46) Thus having spoken, Arjuna in the battlefield, in the chariot, sat down with a distressed mind after throwing away the arrow and bow (evam-uktva-arjunaha-samkhye-rathopasthaha-upavishathaha-visrjya-sasharam-chaapam-shoka-samvignya-manasa). 

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School Of Yoga is a single point resource for all aspects of Classical Yoga practise. We try to achieve this by placing Yoga's traditional methodology in front of the reader and eliciting his or her experience. We value everyone's Yoga experience and would like you to share and enrich other practitioners so that everyone benefits.
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