Shad-Darshana and Brahma-sutra

School of Yoga explains Shad-Darshana and Brahma-sutra

Shad-darshana

Shad-darshana

Shad-Darshana are part of the Aasthika (orthodox philosophy), or orthodox school of philosophical tradition which accepts the Vedas as the root of all knowledge. Convresely, the opposing school is called Naasthika (that which does not accept Aasthika).

School of Yoga explains Shad Darshana

Aasthika school can also be called Shad-darshana (six visions).

Shad-darshana comprises six schools – Nyaya (logic), Vaisheshika (understanding the nature of elements), Samkya (the understanding of tattvas, the union of prakriti and purusha along with the impact of the gunas), Yoga (yoking of one’s identity with his or her manifestation), Mimamsa (correct application of rituals) and Vedanta (understanding the brahman, the soul, liberation and the various ways to get there).

The key aspect of proof rests on 6 methods of hypotheses testing, these are called Pramanas (means of knowledge)Pratyaksha (personal vision), Anumana (inference), Upamana (comparison and analogy), Arthapatti (postulation and derivation from evidence), Anupalabdhi (non-apprehension or negative cognitive proof) and Sabda (verbal testimony).

School of Yoga eplains elements of Shad-Darshana

  • Nyaya (logical reasoning)consists of 16 padhartha (categories)pramana (valid acquisition of knowledge), prameya (objects of valid knowledge), samsaya (doubt), prayojana (aim), drshtanta (example), siddantha (conclusion), avayava (component level analysis), tarka (logical reasoning), nirnaya (resolution), vaada (discussion), jalpa (negotiating), vitanda (complaining), hetvabhasa (fallacious argument), chala (unsteady), jati (sophisticated rebuttal), nigrahasthana (point of defeat).

Nyaya school requires four sources of valid thought for a concept to be acceptedpratyaksha (perception), anumana (inference), upamana (comparison), sabda (testimony or valid source).

  • Vaisheshika (atomism) this is the logic that all material is formed by atomic combination of four substances – earth, water, fire and air. Vaisheshika postulates that all experiences can be derived from dravya (substance – construct of atoms, their number and arrangement); guna (attribute – such as rupa (form), rasa (taste), etc. totaling to 24 in all); karma (activities) – which like guna are dependent on dravya, but unlike guna where each material has a definite purpose, karma is transient in nature; samanya (common properties which join substances); vishesha (uniqueness) which defines each substance; samavaya (internal dynamics of a union) examines the cause and effect which affects the relationship between substances and their environment.

Vaisheshika requires two sources of valid thought for a concept to be acceptedpratyakha (perception) and anumana (inference)

  • Samkya (rationalization)Samkya is a rationalist school which delves into the relationship between the purusha and prakriti along with the dynamics of various gunas (sattva – harmony or balance, raajas or passionate and tamas or obdurate or confused).

Samkhya school requires three sources of valid thought for a theory to be accepted pratyaksha (perception), anumana (inference) and sabda (testimony or valid source).

  • YogaYoga can be any of the major yogasJnana (knowledge), Bhakti (devoution), Karma (action), Hatha and Raja Yoga as propunded by Patanjali.

Yoga is a rationalist school which requires three sources of valid thought for a concept to be acceptedpratyakha (perception), anumana (inference) and sabda (testimony or valid source).

  • Mimamsa also called PoorvaMimamsa or karma kandha, this means reflection or critical investigation. This school is the study of the Vedas and then translate to everyday usage in the form of Dharma, Karma and rituals.

Mimamsa requires five sources of valid thought for a concept to be acceptedpratyaksha (perception), anumana (inference), upamana (comparison), arthapathi (derivation from circumstances) and sabda (testimony or valid source).

  • Vedantais also called Uttara Mimamsa (higher enquiry) or jnanakandais a collection of divergent philosophies grouped together, drawing as inspiration from the Upanishads, Brahma-sutras, Bhagawat Gita etc. There are many schools of Vedanta, best known among them are Advaita, Dvaita, Vashishtadvaita. From here, the various schools of worship such as Shaiva, Shakta, Vaishnava, Ganapatya and Kaumaraa and Sourya emerged.

School of Yoga explains Brahma-sutras

Brahma Sutra – is a text which summarizes and systemizes the spiritual and philosophical ideas of the Upanishads. It consists of 555 verses in 4 chapters, each chapter being divided into 4 parts. Each part is further subdivided into sections or adhikaranas of which there are 189, covering the following topics; Vishaya (topic of the section), Vismaya (the issue at hand/ doubts/ problem statement), purva-parksha (introduction to the solution), siddhanta (theory and arguments, solution and concept/ doctrine), and samgati (threading of the arguments to form a cohesive and comprehensive argument). This sutra was likely to have been composed between 300 BC and 500 AD because, in addition to trying to give a metaphysical meaning to Brahman, it also rebuts the philosophical positions of Buddhist and Jain tenets.

What you should know after reading this blog;

  • What is asthika as opposed to nasthika?
  • Explain Shad darshana and it’s elements?
  • What are the various valid and acceptable sources of proof for a vision?
  • Explain Brahma sutras? What is their significance?

Editor at School Of Yoga
School Of Yoga is a single point resource for all aspects of Classical Yoga practise. We try to achieve this by placing Yoga's traditional methodology in front of the reader and eliciting his or her experience. We value everyone's Yoga experience and would like you to share and enrich other practitioners so that everyone benefits.
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[…] Pramanas (requirement of proof) are – pratyaksha (personal experience), anumana (inference), upamana (comparison and analogy), arthapatti (postulation and derivation from evidence), anupalabdhi (non-apprehension or negative cognitive proof) and sabda (verbal testimony).  […]

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