Bhagavad Geeta Chapter 13 (Vibhaga Yoga)

Bhagavad Geeta Chapter 13kshetra-kshetrajna-vibhaaga Yoga – the yoga of discrimination between kshetra (region/ field) and kshetrajna (awareness of the region/ field).

School of Yoga explains Chapter 13 – Introduction.
  • In chapters 9 and 10, Sri Krishna shows Arjuna his actual Self. This obviously confuses as well as amazes and scares Arjuna making him circumspect with respect to his relationship with Sri Krishna, just like a soldier who is confronted with the fact that the person he thought was a friend is actually the Head of State. 
  • In chapter 13, he moves to the next step, and explains how sentience and awareness allow a person to cognise beyond the visible or gross (sthoola) state. To evolve to the next level, a person should be able to cognise the subtle (sookshma) state as well as the causal (kaaraNa) state.
  • What are these states? How does one evolve to the next level of personal development?
  • Before starting this chapter, we recommend that you review;
    • Chapter 2 (Saankhya-Yoga) – link (https://schoolofyoga.in/yoga-social-system/bhagawat-geeta-chapter-2)
    • Chapter 12 (Vishwaroopadarshana-Yoga) – link (http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/Gita/chapter-13.html).
  • Importantly, one must recognise that development in Yoga is experiential and everything that is said in the Bhagavad-Geeta can only create value when there is introspection and practice.
School of Yoga explains the Bhagavad-Geeta Chapter 13 – verse 1-12.

Arjuna said: Educate me on Prakriti and Purusha, kshetra and kshetrajna.

Sri Krishna said: This body is the kshetra (region/ field) and anyone who is wise to its functioning is a kshetrajna. In fact, many consider me to be the knowledge of the kshetra. Hence, I will explain the features and functions of the kshetra.

  • The cardinal elements (mahabhuta), the sense of being the doer (ahamkara), logic (buddhi) and those unmanifested (avyaktam), the ten senses (indriya) and five objects of the senses (indriyagocharaha). Also, desire, repulsion, happiness, pain, intelligence, fortitude and their amalgamations form the kshetra.
  • To increase knowledge of the kshetra (kshetragnya), cultivate selfless-ness (humility), unpretentiousness, non-violence, peacefulness, straightforwardness, service to teacher, cleanliness, steadiness, controlling/ restraining the soul (atma-vinigraham).
  • Cultivate dispassion towards sense objects, absence of the sense of doer-ship, negativity towards birth, death, old age, sickness and pain. Also, be detached from everything, without intense attachment to the wife, son, home or society. Finally, treat everything with equal demeanour, whether they are desirable or undesirable.
  • By meditating on the soul (self), some can experience the soul in others; others achieve this through knowledge of the Self through Jnana-Yoga, yet others by Karma-Yoga. Also, others who may have no conceptual knowledge, follow paths that others speak of and reach perfection by practicing what they have heard.

School of Yoga explains the concept of kshetra (region/ field) and kshetragnya (awareness of the region/ field):

  • Our body is a kshetra (region/ field). It has an Identity and we identify ourselves with it. So, when we act, karma occurs and debt (rinn or agami-karma) is created. This debt (rinn) is stored as sanchita-karma (overall debt) by the jiva (soul) and manifests as prarabda-karma when the time for repayment fructifies.
  • Just as the body may be considered as an entity with a soul (jiva), entities such as heart, liver, kidneys and lungs as well as red blood corpuscle (RBC) elements within the body that operate independently can also be considered as minor souls (jiva) who also perform karma in their own way and create their own debt (rinn).
  • All matter is made up of the cardinal elements (pancha-mahabhoota – earth, water, fire, air and ether) in various combinations and its properties come from its combinations. For example – the heart can be considered as a combination of earth, water and fire; lungs may be considered to comprise of a combination of earth, water and air, and so on.
  • Hence, it can be assumed that the relationship between various entities within a system will remain for as long as there is debt between them. When debt goes, so does the relationship. For example the kidneys will function for as long as they have a debt (rinn) with the body and other organs within the body, but will fail naturally when their debt has been reconciled. However, when we force the kidneys to function after their debt has been cleared through medication, dialysis or replacement, we are re-enacting the cycle of karma. From null, our identity (asmita) experiences fear of loss of identity (death). This forces us to incur fresh karma as the old debt (rinn) has been discharged. This state of self-worth is the reason why some people continue treatment and others stop fighting.
  • Also, kidneys will also fail when they are abused and if the abuse is on account of free-will, then fresh karma is generated.
School of Yoga explains the Bhagavad-Geeta Chapter 13 – verse 13-12 (Brahman)
  • Yoke yourself to me with no differentiation between us, seek seclusion. Also, be constant in the awareness of the self, staying focussed on understanding the concept of the Self, for this is the most exalted knowledge.
  • Now, I will describe the Supreme Brahman which neither exists nor not-exists. Brahman envelops all, with hands feet, eyes, mouths everywhere. Also, while Brahman defines attributes of the senses, it has no senses. Though it is unattached, supporting all, with no attributes (gunas), yet defines the experience of all attributes.
  • Brahman exists outside and inside all beings, neither dynamic or static because of its subtlety incomprehensible, far and near. Also, Brahman is undivided; yet appears as different in beings that are supported by it, generating and destroying.
  • It is the essence behind light, beyond darkness, knowledge which is to be known, its goal, its seat in the heart of all beings. Thus, kshetra (region) and that which is to be known is described.
  • Finally, those that know this can merge with me.

School of Yoga explains the concept of Brahman (source):

What is the Brahman? Brihadaranyaka-Upanishad states “Aham Brahm-asmi“. This means that the Brahman and the Self or Soul are one and the same.

In the Bhagavad-Geeta – Chapter 2 (Samkhya Yoga), Sri Krishna, states that the Soul is indestructible. Since the Soul and Brahman are the same, Brahman is indestructible.

Also, Taittriya-Upanishad states;

 पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात्पुर्णमुदच्यते
पूर्णश्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥
 शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

Om Puurnnam-Adah Puurnnam-Idam Puurnnaat-Purnnam-Udacyate
Puurnnashya Puurnnam-Aadaaya Puurnnam-Eva-Avashissyate ||
Om Shaantih Shaantih Shaantih ||

Meaning: 

Aum! That (Brahman) is infinite, and This (Self/ Soul) is infinite.
Infinite (soul) proceeds from the infinite (Brahman).
From infinity, when infinity is removed, infinity is the balance (infinity remains).
Aum! Peace! Peace! Peace!

Shloka taken from:  https://www.templepurohit.com/mantras-slokas-stotras/shanti-mantra/om-purnamadah-purnamidam

  • The above means that the Brahman is infinite and indestructible, because no matter what is added or removed, its quality remains unchanged.
  • Similarly, since the atma, Soul or Self emerges from the same infinity (Brahman), it is infinite and indestructible.
  • As a result, since both are indestructible and infinite, there is no difference between the two (Brahman and the atma, Self or Soul).
What is Brahman?

Brahman is more than the source. It is the source, that which sustains everything and motility. Importantly, it is undivided, which means that it is continuous and everywhere. Also, it is the essence of everything – the energy of the sun, the lighting capability of light, burning capability of fire, enveloping capability of a building, protection capability of a constitution, patriotic capability of a flag etc.

Direct explanation of Brahman is impossible, one can only describe Brahman using correlations and qualities. For example, to experience an approximation of Brahman, stand in the middle of railway tracks and look at the tracks. They seem to merge somewhere in the distance, which we know is not true. This feeling of merger at a distance can be approximated as Brahman.

Sri Krishna explains Prakriti and Purusha – verse 13-28

  • Both, Prakriti and Purusha emerge from Brahman. From Purusha emerges consciousness (chitta) and attributes (guna) are created by Prakriti.
  • Purusha experiences the actions that are caused by Prakriti, this is done through the medium of consciousness (chitta). So, experience of pleasure and pain are caused by Purusha who, seated in Prakriti experiences the gunas born of Prakriti.

Bhagavad Geeta Chapter 13, v 21 =

  • पुरुष: प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङक्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान् |
  • कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु|| 21|| 

Purusha, seated in Prakriti experiences the gunas born of Prakriti.

Example – experiencing Purusha and Prakriti:

You are strolling down a street and suddenly meet an acquaintance. Happily, you smile but the other person ignores you and walks away. 

Let us review the above transaction:
  • When you are walking down the road with no specific purpose, your mind is generally empty. This is the state of Brahman, a state of peace without any disturbance. While, the actual Brahman is infinite sublime peace, this allusion is for the purpose of explaining the example.
  • You meet a friend – Your identity (Purusha) recognises another Purursha (identity). So, you manifest. Here, your Purusha and Prakriti weave and prana flows in the various channels or nadis, energising the chitta (consciousness) to reach out to the other Purusha. 
  • The acquaintance ignores you – The feedback comes through the chitta (consciousness) to the Purusha. Consequently, Purusha experiences loss of existence (shrinking asmita or self-esteem) and it shrinks. This changes the guna (attribute) balance to predominantly tamas (inertia/ delusion, despondence, melancholy or shrinkage).

Here, Purusha is the experiencer. Prakriti and Purusha manifest from Brahman. Prana is the motility interface; it enables manifestation without participating. The atma (Self, that aspect of Purusha which is manifesting through Prakriti) experiences the situation as chitta (consciousness). Chitta is the operational outcome of a weave between Purusha and Prakriti, enabled by prana.

Sri Krishna explains kshetra and kshetragna – verse 29 onwards

  • All that is created, comes from the union of the kshetra (region) with the kshetragna (awareness of the identity of the region). Thus, the jnani (one who has experienced the truth) sees the Brahman in everything – those that perish and those that don’t. Also, such a person recognises that the atma (Self) is actionless and all activity is performed by Prakriti. Consequently, such a person merges with the Brahman and becomes that.
  • This atma (Identity / Self), has no beginning, possesses no guna (attributes), is imperishable, though dwelling in the body, neither acts nor is tainted just as the all-pervading space.
  • Just as the Sun illuminates the world, the Lord of the kshetra illuminates the kshetra. So, those that can perceive the distinction between kshetra (region) and kshetragnya (controller of the kshetra) and how one may be liberated from Prakriti, they merge with the Brahman.

School of Yoga examine this concept – how Purusha and Prakriti are connected to life, living and awareness:

  • We can see that Brahman has been an integral part in every aspect of the experience, but it is not the experiencer.
  • Purusha is the experiencer that uses consciousness (chitta) to get information while Prakriti operates through attributes (guna).
  • Next, prana is the energising aspect but has not experienced anything either.
  • Also, Prakriti has manifested in everything as attribute (guna) but not experienced anything.
  • Finally, the consciousness (chitta) has participated but more like a postman, transmitting Purusha’s message to the object and receiving feedback which it has passed on to Purusha. It is also inert, not experiencing anything!
  • Meanwhile, Purusha the experiencer, it can do nothing without Prakriti.
  • The weave of Purusha and Prakriti gives rise to creation and existence of a primary self-sustaining unit called atma (soul, Identity or Self).
  • Also, atma (soul) by virtue of being the primary unit of Identity is the repository of debt (rinn), but it cannot act without the motility factor (prana).
  • With prana, the atma expands by integrating many more atmas to form a body (kshetra) and interacts with its environment.
  • The repository of all karma of a kshetra resides in the atma. So, when prana leaves, the body (kshetra) loses its ability to perform karma and the atma has to reconcile its debts (rinn) and get another body (kshetra).
  • The experiencer, YOU, are acting on the foundation of Brahman, using Brahman as motility, but not engaging with Brahman (That). That is in YOU, but YOU are not in That.
  • So, all of us are an infinite, inexhaustible, unrelenting, continuous field of a weave of Purusha and Prakriti. When it is applied to individuals with sentience, it is called svatantra (sva= self + tantra = weave of Purusha and Prakriti).
  • All entities have five praaNas (motility). These are
    • praaNa-vaayu (incoming motility),
    • apaana-vaayu (outgoing motility),
    • vyaana-vaayu (ethereal or aural energy motility),
    • udaana-vaayu (upward moving motility), and
    • samaana-vaayu (digestion motility).
  • The above five motilities (praaNa) combine with the five primordial elements (pancha-bhoota) to form five sheaths (koshas) around the body. These are;
    • Sheath made by food (anna-maya-kosha),
    • Sheath of praaNa (praaNa-maya-kosha),
    • Sheath of cognition (mano-maya-kosha),
    • Sheath of awareness of the system (vijnana-maya-kosha),
    • Sheath of merger (ananda-maya-kosha).
  • Cognition of praaNa in the body (kshetra) is pragnya (situational awareness).
  • Whenever, one tries to cognise any region, one must recognise each of the factors and be aware of the state of the Self (atma) of the region/ field (kshetra). This awareness (pragnya) is called kshetragnya (awareness of the region).
  • Anyone who is constantly in this state of awareness is called sthitha-pragnya (person of steady awareness).
  • We can also dissect awareness (pragnya) further into three levels;
    • Gross (sthoola) – This covers all aspects that can be cognised by the senses (indriya), cognitive apparatus (manas) and logic (buddhi).
      • For example: the world we see around us is made of the primordial elements such as earth, water, fire, air and space (panchabhootas).
      • All of these elements can be sensed by the sensory system and decoded into what they represent by the cognitive and logical apparatus.
      • So, when we shop for vegetables, we look at the gross aspects of the vegetable – its colour, texture and feel to ascertain its health through our sensory apparatus and this is decoded by our cognitive and logical apparatus.
      • Within our bodies, this translates to the sheath made by food (anna-maya-kosha) and sheath of praaNa (praaNa-maya-kosha).
      • In the body, this is called sthoola-shareera or cognition of the gross body, which covers awareness of the material aspect of the human body driven by diet (anna-maya) and motility (praana-maya).
    • Subtle (sookshma) The awareness of gross elements are driven by an underlying principle, which is the consciousness (chitta).
      • For example – The internal combustion engine is driven on the principle of “Ideal gas law” which says that increasing the temperature of a gas increases the pressure that makes it want to expand.
      • The gross (shoola) element is the internal combustion engine, which is physically available to the senses in the form of earth, water, fire, air and space (panchabhootas).
      • The subtle element (sookshama) is the cognition of the principle of “Ideal gas law” (mano-maya) and adapting it to build a system (vijnana-maya) that uses fuel to drive the engine.
      • The awareness of this subtle principle (sookshma-sharira) is driven by the consciousness (chitta) which takes the principle (vijnana-maya) and visualises it (mano-maya) into a gross body (sthoola-sharira).
      • In the body, this is the awareness of the movement of consciousness within the body is called sheath of cognition (mano-maya-kosha) and sheath of awareness of the system (vijnana-maya-kosha),
      • For instance, when you read this sentence, the primary information you see is derived throught its physical attributes (sthoola-sharira), of alphabets and words that are transmitted through a device. However, your experience of the underlying principles (sookshma-sharira) comes from the quality of your awareness as you decipher the information (mano-maya) relating to the subject (vijnana-maya). 
    • Causal (kaaraNa) – this is the state from which all materiality (maya) is caused.
      • While the base is the Brahman, it is the launch point of Purusha and Prakriti and the point where joy is experienced. So, this is called the sheath of joy (ananda-maya-kosha).
      • For examplewe know that Archimedes was bobbing physically (sthoola) in a bathtub in a state of null (Brahman) watching the waters sloshing over the tub and his body bobbing. Suddenly, an inspiration occured (ananda-maya), and he cracked the problem of buoyancy (sookshma). The same can be applied to Newton sitting under a tree watching the apple fall down or August Kekule imagining the Benzene ring to be a snake chasing its own tail or Watson to discover the ATGC (adenine-thyamine-guanine-cystocine) model of DNA. This is the causal state (kaarana-sharira).
Union of the kshetra (region/ field) and kshetragnya (awareness of the region/ field)

Field or region can also refer to an entity such as a building, society, office, company, country, region, world, solar system and even the Universe. How would it work? 

Let us look at a company and country…
  • A company or country is just an idea… first, there is nothing! This is the Brahman.
  • In the case of a company, someone gets an idea or desire to start one. Similarly, in the case of a country people unite in a desire for a country! This is ichha shakti
  • Next, people make sacrifices necessary for creation of their country. In the case of a company, the promoter sacrifices time, resources and energy to get the requisite technology, funding, people, systems. This is adiyagnya.
  • From the sacrifice emerges a national identity (Purusha). When it weaves with its own manifestation (Prakriti), a national soul (atma) is formed and this is represented by the Government, National Flag and Constitution. In the case of a company, the identity (Purusha) is established by the articles of association and brand. Prakriti comes in the form of a product.
  • Prakriti manifests as guna (attributes). Legislature, which represents the people, hence their identity, fears, aspirations and delusions, is predominantly tamas. Judiciary, which represents equality is predominantly sattvic and Executive, which runs the country is rajasic, since effort and energy are required to keep all systems functioning. In the case of the company, these gunas are embedded in each department and the way each department functions. For example, a well-run manufacturing department will have quality systems, low wastage and rejection, optimised use of manpower etc. Thus, a good manufacturing department should be low of tamas, but high on rajas and sattva. However, a branding department would need to understand Identity, which is intrinsically tamasic but be balanced by sattva so that the brand doesn’t become narcissistic! Quality department would have a mix of rajas and sattva, while accounts would need to be a mix of tamas, rajas and sattva owing to the intrinsic need for integrity, ability to say no and accuracy.
  • Kshetra is defined by the borders of the country. In a company, this depends on the product line and markets as can be seen in the case of Amazon, Microsoft, Indian Railways or Ford!
  • The Head of the country is kshetragnya (soul of the kshetra). So, the ability of any Head to understand and define the country’s goals determines how the gunas will mix in its operation. The board, in a company would ideally be the kshetragnya, but often, it might be the department heads if functions are compartmentalised.
  • If the Head of Government were to be delusional, then all actions by the Government will be predominantly tamasic. Also, if the Head were to be ambitious, then the Governments actions will be rajasic and aggressive. Finally, a sattivic Government will adopt a balanced and harmonic approach to all issues mixing reconciliation, aggression and passivity appropriately. This applies to companies as well.
  • The country’s awareness of its position in the external environment is vijnana and its understanding of itself, its strengths and weaknesses is jnana. In the case of a company, it would be the strategic as well as competitive environment.
  • Also, the energy that flows through the country which makes the guna’s function is prana and encompassing foundation of all experience within the kshetra (country) is an undefinable state of nothing, Brahman. This applies to companies also.
  • Finally, the degree to which the leader and people of a company or country are yoked to their country’s identity will determine the seamlessness with which their actions will mirror the requirements of their country.
  • The yoking of people to their company or country is Yoga and the outcome is determined by the mix of situational awareness (pragnya), conditioning (dharma), dedication (shraddha), knowledge (jnana) and sacrifice (yagnya), which includes effort (karma).
  • It’s amazing, how this ancient philosophy is so universally applicable in every situation as a manual of life and living.

School of Yoga posits views that may be contrary to accepted positions: 

Are Brahman and God one and the same? We pray TO God, which means that we adopt a subordinate attitude when dealing with God. However, since the Self and Brahman are the same, we adopt an attitude of equalness with the Brahman. Hence, equating Brahman with God, may not be appropriate.

School of Yoga explains the lesson learned in Chapter 13

  • Knowledge of the kshetra in its gross (sthoola) and subtle (sookshma) aspects is kshetrajna. Brahman is the causal state (kaarana).
  • Purusha is the one which permits, the spectator, that which experiences the Self. Consequently, those with knowledge of the Purusha and Prakriti along with the gunas are able to isolate experience from the Self and are never born again.
  • So, anyone who is attached to these material outcomes will be unable to move from the gross state to the subtle and finally causal state. To achieve this, one needs to move beyond the material by avoiding duality of like/dislike, discrimination between permanent and impermanent (vivekam), dispassion to all objects (vairagyam) and adopt an equal gaze (sama-drishti) to everything.

The Transliteration of the Bhagavad-Geeta – Chapter 13 follows:

The Sanskrit words are in red italics and meaning, before the words, are in black.

(1) Arjuna asked – primordial manifestation and primordial Identity as well as battle field and knowledge of the field (prakritim-purusham-cha-eva-kshetram-kshetragnyam-eva-ch), this I wish to know whatever is necessary to know (etat-veditum-icchami-jnaanam-jneyam-cha).

(2-3) Sri Krishna replied – this body is called the field, he that understands it is called knower of the field (idam-shareeram-kshetram-iti-abhidheeyate-etat-yah-vethi-taam-praahuhu-ksetragnya-iti-tadvidaha). Know me to be the knower of all fields, the field and knowledge of the field is cognition of me (kshetragnya-cha-api-maam-viddhi-sarva-kshetreshu-kshetr-ksetragnyaanaam-yat-jnaanam-mat-mama).

(4-5) What is the field, what is it like, what changes occur to in and in what circumstances, what are its powers, in brief, hear (tat-kshetram-yat-cha-yaadrak-cha-yaadvikaari-yataha-cha-yat-sah-cha-yaha-yat-prabhaavaha-cha-tat-samaasena-me-srnu). Many seers have chanted various distinct descriptions about Brahman which are decisive and full of reasoning (rishibhih-bahuda-geetam-chandobhihi-vividhaihi-prthak-brahma-sootra-padaihi-cha-eva-hetumadbhihi-vinischitaih).

(6-7) Great elements, feeling that I am the doer, intellect, the one unmanifested and even the ten senses and the five objects of the senses (maha-bhootani-ahamkaaraha-buddhihi-avyaktam-eva-cha-indriyaNi-dasha-ekam-cha-pancha-cha-indriyanochaaraha). Desire, dislike, pleasure, pain, the steady aggregate consciousness, this field with its modifications has been described (iccha-dvesha-sukham-dukkham-samgaataha-chetana-dhritihi-etat-kshetram-samasena-savikaaram-udahritam).

(8-9) Humility, unpretentiousness, non-injury, tranquillity, uprightness, service to the teacher, purity, steadiness and subduing the Self (amaanitvam-adambhitvam-ahimsa-kshaantih-aarjavam-aachaarya-upaasanam-shoucham-sthairyam-aatma-vinigraha). Dispassion towards materiality, absence of doer-ship and even disregard for the affliction of birth-death, old age, infirmity and suffering (indriya-artheshu-vairagyam-anahamkaara-eva-cha-janma-mrityu-jaraa-vyaadhi-dukkha-dosha-anudarshanam).

(10-12) Non-attachment, non-identification of the Self with son, wife and family, having constant and even consciousness in the justification of the desirable and undesirable (askitaha-anabhishvangah-putra-daara-grhaadisu-nityam-cha-sama-chittatvam-ishta-anishta-upapathishu). To me, with unswerving focussed yoga of devotion, resort to lonely places and avoid people (mayi-cha-ananya-yogena-bhaktihi-avyabhichaariNi-vivikta-desa-sevitvam-aratihi-jana-sansidhhihi). Constantly seeking cognition of the primordial Self, the subtle wisdom seen in materiality, this wisdom which is thus declared is the opposite of ignorance (adhyaatma-jnana-nityatvam-tattva-artha-darshanam-etat-jnanam-iti-proktam-ajnaanam-yat-atah-anyatha).

(13-14) That which should be cognised, I will declare, which on cognising one will attain immortality by merging with the beginningless supreme Brahman which is said not to have value nor not have value (jneyam-yat-tat-pravakshyaami-yat-jnyaatva-amritam-ashnute-anaadimat-param-brahma-na-sat-tat-naasat-uchhayate). With hands and feet that are everywhere, everywhere with eyes, head and mouth, everywhere with ears, it exists covering everything in the world (sarvataha-paaNipaadam-tat-sarvataha-akshi-shiraha-mukham-sarvataha-shrutimatam-loke-sarvamaavrtya-tishtati).

(15-16) Bringing clarity to all senses driven by attributes, all senses removed and unattached, supporting all and even devoid of attributes and still the user of attributes (sarva-indriya-guNa-aaBhaasam-sarva-indriya-vivarjitam-asaktam-sarva-bhrt-cha-eva-nirguNam-guNabhoktram-cha). Outside and within creation, unmoving yet moving also and because of its subtlety, that incognisable is far and near (bahih-antah-cha-bhootaanam-acharam-charam-eva-cha-sookshmtvaat-tat-avijneyam-doorastham-cha-antike-cha-tat).

(17-18) Undivided and in creation existing as if divided, existing as well as supporting creation and know that to be devouring and generating (avibhaktam-cha-bhooteshu-vibhaktam-eva-cha-sthitham-bhootabhrtr-cha-tat-jneyam-grsishNu-prabhavishNu-cha). That which is the light that lights complete darkness it is said, wisdom that is cognised, the goal of wisdom, seated in the heart of all (jyotisam-api-tat-jyotihi-tamasaha-param-uchayate-jnanam-jnyeyam-jnanagamayam-hridi-sarvasya-vishtitam).

(19-20) Thus, the field as well as wisdom and well as the knowable have been stated briefly. Knowing this, my devotee merges with my essence (iti-kshetra-tatha-jnaana-jnyeya-cha-uktam-samaasathaha-madbhakta-etat-vijnyaya-madbhaavaaya-upapadyate). Know that both Prakriti and Purusha are also without beginning, know that all changes and gunas are born out of Prakriti (prakritim-purusham-cha-eva-viddhi-anaadi-ubhau-api-vikaaraan-cha-eva-visshi-prakriti-sambhavaan).

(21-22) The act, reason for the act, the actor is caused by Prakriti, it is said. Purusha is the cause of the experience of pleasure and pain, it is said (kaary-kaaraN-kartrtva-hetu-prakriti-uchhayate-purushaha-sukkha-dukkhaanaam-bhoktritve-hetu-uchhayate). Indeed, Purusha embedded in Prakriti experiences guna that emerge from Prakriti, which include cause, attachment to the attributes, of one’s value, lack of value, of birth from various wombs (purushaha-prakritishtaha-hi-bhunkte-prakritijaan-guNaaha-kaaraNam-guNasangaha-asya-sat-asat-yoni-janmasu).

(23-24) The spectator, permitter and husband, the experiencer is the great Eeshwara, who is the supreme Soul, and so the body is also called supreme Purusha (upadrishta-anumanta-cha-bharta-bhokta-maheswaraha-paramatma-iti-cha-api-uktaha-dehe-asmin-purushaha-param). He who this cognises Purusha, Prakriti and gunas in all combinations in the state of the present, also he is not born again (yah-evam-vetti-purusham-prakritim-cha-gunaihi-saha-sarvatha-varthamaanaha-api-na-sah-bhooyam-abhijaayate).

(25-26) By meditating into the Self, some can cognise the Self in the Self, others use yoga of knowledge and yet others karma yoga (dhyaanena-atmani-pashyanti-kechid-aatmaanam-aatmanaa-anya-samkhyena-yogena-karma-yogena-cha-pare). Others, even though not knowing, worship as they have heard from others, and even they also cross beyond death due to their devotion to what they have heard (anya-tu-evam-ajaanant-shrutva-anebhyaha-upaasate-te-api-cha-atitaranti-eva-mrtyum-shrutipaaraayaNaaha).

(27-28) Anything that comes into existence, the static and mobile, the confluence of the field and knowledge of the field must be cognised (yaavat-samjaayate-kimchit-sattvam-sthaavara-jangamam-kshetra-kshetragnya-samyogat-tat-viddhi). Equally in all creation exists the supreme Being, he that sees among the perishable the non-perishable is one that actually sees (samam-sarveshu-bhooteshu-tashtantam-parameeshwaram-vinashyatsu-avinashyatsam-yaha-pashyantisah-pashyati).

(29-30) Indeed, he that sees equally everywhere, as the baseline the Being, that Self is not destroyed, the self then goes to the supreme goal (samam-pashyan-hi-sarvatr-samavasthitam-eeshvaram-na-hinasti-aatmanaa-aatmaanam-tatah-taati-paraam-gatim). He who cognises that all actions are performed by Prakriti alone, that seer also is a Self which becomes actionless (prakritya-eva-cha-karmaaNi-karmaaNaani-sarvashaha-yah-pashyati-tatha-athmaanam-akartaaram-sah-pashyati).

(31-32) When one sees all creation is as the same entity, from that development onward he becomes Brahman (yada-bhoota-prthag-bhaavam-ekastham-anupashyati-tatah-eva-cha-vistaaram-brahma-sampadhate-tada). Without beginning, without attributes, this imperishable supreme Self, though in the body, does not act nor is it tainted (anaaditvaat-nirguNatvaat-paramatma-ayam-avyayaha-shareerastha-api-na-karoti-na-lipyate).

(33-35) Just as ether exists everywhere in a subtle manner but does not get tainted, the Self exists everywhere in the body but is not tainted (yatha-sarvagatham-soukshmyat-aakaasham-na-upalipyate-sarvam-avasthithah-dehe-thatha-aatma-na-upalipyate). Just as this one Sun lights the whole field, similarly the Brahman illuminates everything (yatha-prakaashyati-ekaha-kritsnam-lokam-imam-ravihi-kshetram-kshetri-thatha-kritsnam-prakaashyati). So, the distinction between the field and knower of the field is by cognition of wisdom that liberation of creation from Prakriti and those that know go to the Supreme (kshetra-kshetragnya-evam-antaram-jnana-chaksusa-bhoota-prakriti-moksham-cha-ye-viduhu-yaanti-te-param).

Editor at School Of Yoga
School Of Yoga is a single point resource for all aspects of Classical Yoga practise. We try to achieve this by placing Yoga's traditional methodology in front of the reader and eliciting his or her experience. We value everyone's Yoga experience and would like you to share and enrich other practitioners so that everyone benefits.
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