Bhagavad Geeta Chapter 15 (Purushottama Yoga)

Bhagavad-Geeta Chapter 15Purushottama Yoga (Yoga of the supreme Purushasupreme Self)

School of Yoga explains Chapter 15 – Introduction.
  • In chapters 13, Sri Krishna speaks about the body being a field and understanding the field as kshetragnya. However, it is evident that the word kshetra denotes greater opportunity for use than being limited to the body.
  • In chapter 14, he takes this concept into personal development, speaking about how attributes (guna) drive behaviour.
  • In chapter 15, he speaks about how a person of excellence (purushottama) should live, using himself as a role model.
  • Excellence has always fascinated us and progress has been made possible because of adherence to perfection and excellence. But what is it? How does science view it and is there any correlation between today’s understanding of excellence and the way ancient cultures of the South Asian sub-continent encouraged it?
  • This chapter looks at some of management and manufacturing science’s accepted theories and compares it to that which was practiced in South Asia, the results are quite astonishing. 

Sri Krishna explains ashwatha (fig tree) – the tree of life

If one were to compare with the indestructible ashwatta tree with its roots above and branches below, the metering hymns are the leaves and one who knows the Vedas comprehends this. Also, below and above are its branches, nourished by the gunas; sense-objects are its buds rooted in action and stretching its branches in the world of humans.

Thus, this fig tree (ashwattha) has no beginning, middle or end and needs to be cut with the axe of non-attachment. This goal should be sought, for reaching this condition, one merges with the Supreme Self.

Competency requirement for reaching this state:

  • Such people are free from pride and delusion, victorious over attachment, constant in the Supreme Self, passion under control, freed from opposites, such as peace or pain.
  • A part of me is embedded in the world of beings as a being driving the six senses which abide in Prakriti, enabling the person to be sentient.
  • When the person dies, he leaves the body but this part of me (Sri Krishna) stays with the soul and moves to another body.
  • The departure of the soul cannot be seen if one is mired in the activities of the guna, but if a person is able to transcend this, then one can see the soul depart.
  • To reach this stage, one should strive, endured by Yoga to cognise the Supreme Identity within the soul. It is this Identity which drives motivation to relate to the world.
  • I am the light in the Sun, Moon and the fire. Also, I am the vaisvanara-agni (the warmth of the body), residing in prana and apana where I digest food. 
  • Finally, I am memory, knowledge of the identity and well as lack of it; the author of Vedanta and the knower of the Vedas.
  • There are two Purushas – those that perish and those that are imperishable. All creation is perishable, the Supreme Identity (kootastha) is imperishable and it supports everything. Since, I transcend the perishable as well as the imperishable, I am called Purushottama.
  • Know this, that when a man becomes enlightened, all his duties are accomplished.

How does the system function? School of Yoga explains…

  • Brahman experiences existential crisis and a desire to project itself (iccha shakti or strength of desire).
  • Effort to manifest requires sacrifice to overcome inhibition or fear of loss of Identity (adiyagna or sacrifice).
  • From this sacrifice arises Purusha (primordial Soul or identity) and Prakriti (Primordial manifestation) of Purusha.
  • Prakriti manifests as attributes (guna).
  • The motility interface between Purusha and Prakriti is prana (primordial motility).
  • The unit of the weave of Prakriti and Purusha is the Soul (atma). 
  • Chitta (consciousness) emerges from Purusha and becomes the medium of transmitting the expression of the Soul (atma), which is seen by all as asmita (self-esteem or self-worth).
  • Impressions carried by the consciousness (chitta) enter through the senses (indriyas). First, they go to the centre of cognition (manas) for collation of stimulus. Then, the collated information is carried by the consciousness (chitta) to the centers of logic (buddhi). Here, the incoming stimulus is compared with conditioning (dharma) and a response is formulated. Since conditioning (dharma) is the foundation of self-worth (asmita), the response is called ahamkaara (I am the doer).
  • If there is congruence between the incoming stimulus and dharma, asmita (self-worth) pulls the entity towards itself because it wants continued engagement. If there is dissonance, asmita pushes the object away to avoid discomfort. Consequently, there is a transaction which results in give or take which is called action (karma). 
  • Since all give-take transactions are always unequal, there is an imbalance between giver and taker.
  • This imbalance creates debt or rinn which has to be repaid, even if it means taking another birth (janma).
  • The ensuing cycle of birth and death is called samsaara.
  • Consequently, the objective of life is to break this cycle of birth and death (samsaara) and merge with Brahman. 

School of Yoga explains Purushottama:

Purushottama is a compound word of Purusha (Experiencer) + uttam (supreme). This word can be rearranged as uttam purush or a person who has complete control of the experience or response to stimuli in any situation. This means that the person has an awareness that does not change under any circumstances. Consequently, this person can be called a “sthithapragnya” or a person with steady situational awareness as described in the-Bhagavad-Geeta Chapter 2 (Saankhya-Yoga). 

What are the qualities of such a person?

  • We know that Purusha (primordial Self or experiencer) weaves with Prakriti which manifests as guna (attribute).
  • There are two types of Purushas, one that perishes and one that is imperishable. The imperishable Purusha is Sri Krishna and the role model. All creation is perishable Purusha that needs to be optimised and brought to a state of congruence that is close to that of Sri Krishna. 
  • This means that when Prakriti is in a nirGuna state (nir = without + guna = attributes), Purusha will not experience anything. But, is that the only way?
  • We know that when Purusha projects its consciousness (chitta) into the environment for confirmation of existence. So, when consciousness (chitta) is not allowed to project itself, Purusha remains steady is its own awareness.
  • This can also happen, if Purusha engages and acts without any attachment to the outcome, in which case there is no experience in Purusha.
School of Yoga explains the concept of personality (sva-tantra) development over the ages.

Up until now, mankind has always enquired into the meaning of existence. This has mainly taken the form of trying to understand the Universe and a hierarchy for everything that exists within the Self (kshetragnya). This enquiry can be broadly split into Western thought which is based on Greek logic as well as Abrahamic thought and Oriental thought, which has two major branches, the South Asian philosophy of Sanatana-dharma, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism along with the Chinese philosophy of Tao and Confucianism. There are other schools of thought, but most of the world today is covered by the above schools.

An important difference between the two streams of thought is that while the base of Western thought has been moulded heavily by shifting power and conquests, the fundamentals of Oriental thought have largely remained unaffected by conquest and remained unchanged over the centuries with some modification dictated by societal development.

Though the Bhagavad-Geeta is very lucid in its explanation of concept and clarity of personal goals, it is a high-level document and not an easy starter kit! So, some DIY (do it yourself) solutions are required while the person works out the larger goals espoused by Sri Krishna.

So, it seems appropriate that one seeks an intermediate solution which can act as springboard to higher development. One place that one could search is the developments that became popular post World War 2 because the current world is largely shaped by that period and all of us subscribe to it directly or indirectly.

Some convergence of concepts:

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) – The journey into conditioning (dharma) is incomplete without Pavlov and his work on classical conditioning and reflex. Almost all conclusions of Pavlov reinforce the sanatana-dharma hypothesis that conditioning (dharma) determines behaviour (svabhaava).

However, dharma takes the concept further in two areas;

  • Dharma says that all creation, sentient or insentient have a natural state and
  • The natural state of an individual entity is svadharma and this translates to conditioning.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) – Freud is often considered the father of psychoanalysis, using concepts such as free-association, transference, sexuality and id-ego-super ego etc. in the framework of psychoanalysis. The interesting aspect of psychoanalysis is its congruence with ancient Yoga concepts.

  • Id is considered to be the random desires that drives behaviour. In Yoga, these impulses are called vaasanas which are considered to be indelible-impressions arising from unpaid debts (prarabda-karma), so even though people seem to be acting out of control, they are actually driven by unpaid debts.
  • The super-ego is considered to be the moral and critical side of the individual that acts like a conscience, constantly struggling to counteract the Id. In Yoga, this is dharma (conditioning). Dharma is also considered to be a product of debt that has come up for resolution (prarabda-karma) and determines where a person is born as well as how he or she will be conditioned. Our incomplete and unfulfilled desires (vaasanas) are constantly struggling with our conditioning (dharma).
  • The ego is the one that plays mediator between Id and Super-ego to moderate behaviour. In Yoga, this is called asmita (I am or self-worth). While in psychoanalytic theory, the ego is a completely internal function, in Yoga, the self-worth (asmita) receives its stimulus through the consciousness (chitta) which carries the impression of the situation through the senses (indriyas) to the cognitive apparatus (manas), after which intellect (buddhi) compares the information with conditioning (dharma). However, in some situations, even self-worth (asmita) gets hijacked by unfulfilled desires (vaasanaas), this is the power of unfulfilled impressions of unresolved debts (prarabda-karma).
  • Also, while in psychoanalysis free-will is considered available to the individual, in Yoga, this is considered a product of awareness (pragnya) and increases only with experience (anubhava). 

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) – in 1943, Abraham Maslow published his paper “Theory of Human Motivation” where he postulated that humans have a hierarchy with which they approach any need. He said that there are five stages of Motivation. Its a hierarchy because a person will need to be complete in one need to be able to go to the next need. The hierarchy is;

  • Physiological – Food, safety, rest and shelter,
  • Safety – The feeling of not being threatened,
  • Social needs – relationships and social validation,
  • Esteem Needs – need for accomplishment and prestige,
  • Self-actualisation – the ability to achieve complete potential. 

Interestingly, it is possible to correlate the psychological state as propounded by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “Theory of Motivation” with energy vortices (chakra) in Yoga. It is known in Yoga and other forms of Oriental healing that rate of energy flow through these centres affects the behaviour of the person. As a matter of fact, ancient Oriental texts on this subject from India, China, Korea, and Japan speak of multiple energy vortices (chakra), but all agree that there are six major wheel locations in the human body which control all major organs.

  • Base chakra (mooladhara): (mool = base + aadhar = foundation or source)

The first of the energy vortices aligns itself with the perineum, a flat region above the coccyx and between the anus and genitals. This centre affects the physiological aspects of the individual, that is, the overall energy levels, feeling of safety and health.

Example: People in difficult situations squirm in their seats. When fears for personal safety overwhelm us, there is acute discomfort at the region of the anus. There is an urge to shift in the seat, and the need to relieve ourselves when fear is very great. The rocking action energises the mooladhara-chakra.

  • Self-evolution chakra (svadhishtana): (sva = self + adhishtana = evolved place).

This energy vortex corresponds to the sacral region around the genital area. It affects sexuality, social and communications skills of the individual. Control of this centre results in strong response control and emotional stability.

Example: After a heated argument, often there is an ache in the lower back. This occurs on account of our need to communicate effectively and to be able to convince the other person about our point of view and reinforce our sense of self-worth (asmita). This strains the lumbar arch and often results in stress.

  • Stomach chakra (Manipura): (manipura = navel). 

This energy vortex is placed around the navel and corresponds to the lumbar area of the spine. This is a centre that controls situational and management skills.

Example: Often, we hear about the gut feel or taking a decision from the gut! How is that possible? After all, it is the brain that decides. Or is it? The stomach does have a role, for the manipura with its acids & bile is affected by blood flow in case of fight or flight stimulus. Consequently, this impacts the manipura energy vortex and comfort in a social environment.

  • Heart chakra (anahata): (ana= not + aahat = touched) 

Placed at the centre of the chest, this responds to the thoracic region on the spine. This is also the centre of emotional energy. So, a balanced centre is essential for emotional stability.

Example: Blood pressure is directly related to anger and speech. Generally, doctors advise a person to reduce speaking after a heart attack. Why? Because a person gets excited, the release of adrenaline has a direct impact on the heart & lungs.

  • Throat chakra (Visuddhi): (vishuddh = extraordinarily pure)

This energy vortex is placed around the Adam’s apple and corresponds to the cervical region in the spine. The thyroid, parathyroid and lymphatic systems, which control metabolic activity reside here. Since metabolism is the ability of the body to convert food into usable energy and rebuilding of tissue, seamless energy flow here is critical.

This is also the area which controls breathing and food intake, so any disruption in our stress levels will immediately impact the quality of our breathing and digestion.

Example: When we are afraid, we often feel choked! Why? Because the prana flow at the visuddhi is congested. The chocking action impacts the thyroid & parathyroid. Consequently, disruption of this center can lead to various illnesses.

  • Forehead centre (ajna): (ajna = that which commands)

This energy vortex is placed between the eyebrows in the front of the cranium. It controls the functioning of the other energy vortices. It energizes the amygdala, pituitary and endocrine glands etc. and controls both, primary and secondary response. Consequently, this energy vortex is the primary input point for “fight or flight” stimulus.

One can see that the chakra system of Yoga is highly evolved and can be used in therapy. Another important aspect is that Yoga recognises that each of these vortices may be activated, depleted or congested to varying degrees and that this is an actively changing parameter. This makes the Yoga system subtle and sophisticated.

The only problem is that this system is not completely understood and its subtlety makes it hard to quantify systematise. However, at an individual level, it is possible for a practitioner to perfect this science.

Hans Seyle (1907-1982) – Hans Seyle, an endocrinologist propounded the theory of stress where he descibed stress as “the non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it”. He postulated that when there is stimulus which moves the person away from homeostasis (natural state of peace or dharma), the PTA axis (pituitary-hypothalamus-adrenal axis) is activated depending on the impact to the person’s self-worth (asmita). As a result, the person experiences eustress / motivation (raaga) or distress / misery (dwesha) and this triggers an internal as well as external (fight or flight) response (karma). 

It is clear that there are many theories which are evolving in modern scientific space and that many of these “discoveries” are reinforcing concepts already embedded in sanatana-dharma and Yoga.

Can we use concepts from modern science and engineering for self-improvement and development?

It might sound silly, but some of the best personality development actually come from TQM (Total Quality Management) and Manufacturing Engineering principles. These principles are generic and full of common-sense, so they can be adapted by us for personal development to become purushottama (people of high calibre). 

We can define a perfect person (purushottama) as one who can solve problems, find solutions and generate minimum waste. So, what steps would a typical problem-solving technique have?

  • Identification of the problem and its root cause
  • Implementing a Solution and
  • Ensure minimum waste
Identification of the problem and its root cause:

Two interesting root cause identification techniques can be used in daily life also.

  • The first is called “5-Why technique” where a person asks himself “Why there is a problem” five times. 
  • For example – If you missed a flight, then the first question would be – Why did I miss the flight. Let’s say, the answer is – I got up late. The second question would be – Why did I get up late? The answer might be – I slept late. The third question would be – Why did I sleep late… and this question-answer will continue until a root cause is identified.
  • The second technique is “Is-Is not”.
  • In this technique the practitioner looks at both, that which is occurring as well as that which is not occurring. So, a lattice structure of what is working and what is not working gets constructed. This leads the person to identifying the root cause.
  • For example – Start by asking, what is the problem? Say, water is not draining from the kitchen sink. Is there obstruction? There is no debris in the sink. There is accumulated waste in the line.
  • Example 2 – Project getting delayed! Is – people are submitting reports late. Is not – project resources not available. Then ask – Is there review? Review is done every month. Review is not adequate. So, change review frequency.
  • Both practices have their uses in various situations and increase awareness (pragnya).
Finding a solution: 

Once the root cause is identified, we need to find ways to improve and this means change! Since, change is not easy, the best path of change seems to be gradual and systematic effort (abhyaasa). Let us look at some of the concepts that come out of manufacturing.  

1- Kaizen – Kai means change and Zen means good, so Kaizen means continuous improvement. While, this concept was designed primarily for manufacturing, it is applicable for personal development also because it allows people to change in a planned and structured manner that ensures risk to self-worth (asmita) is minimised.

Since Kaizen focuses on continuous improvement in an iterative manner, it becomes a useful tool in Purushottama-Yoga, because Yoga is about increasing awareness (sthithapragnya) and this effort requires constant application on oneself. 

Kaizen is based on three major pillars –

  • Gemba (situation) – The starting point is self-empowerment, which means that the responsibility for building a solution that fits you belongs to you. So, taking cues from what Sri Krishna says in the Bhagavad-Geeta.
    • Each is his own friend or enemy. Take responsibility for your actions.
    • It is important to have a vision of where one is going (satya), otherwise the journey cannot be planned.
    • Stop worrying about the outcome (karma-phala), perform the action as a sacrifice (yagnya).
    • Keep an attitude of discrimination (vivekam) and dispassion (vairagyam) so that the activity is constantly kept in focus (ekagrath).
    • Perform the action with complete dedication (shraddha).
    • Be balanced in success and failure.
  • Organise your life with 5S – 5S has been used as a critical tool to organise the work place. However, it is incredibly useful as a personal development tool and consists of – (Japanese word has been placed first); 
    • Seiri (Sort) – Discriminate that which adds value from that which is extraneous from the incoming information and discard that which does not add value (vivekam).
    • Seiton (Organise logically) – A place for everything and everything in its place. Once you align your information logically, retrieval becomes easy and one expends less energy in searching. This is somewhat like defragging your hard-disk, only it’s an internal defrag!
    • Seiso (Clean) – In Yoga, this is called soucham or cleanliness. While 5S focuses primarily on cleanliness of the workplace, soucham has two components – aantara-soucham (internal cleanliness) and baahira-soucham (external cleanliness). Clean your cognitive (manas) and logical (buddhi) apparatus continuously. Dump baggage. This ensures that sentimentality is separated from rationality (vairagyam).
    • Seiketsu (Perfect it) – Practice it (abhyaasa). Make it a habit, a part of yourself. 
    • Shitsuke (Self-discipline) – ensure that you don’t veer from what you have changed into unless you find a gap. When you do identify a drop in your standard, rectify yourself. This will increase awareness (pragnya) and free-will.
  • Change – how can we change? this is by building success daily, with each effort (karma). Change principle calls for Plan/ Do/ Check/ Act – this means;
    • plan how you wish to change,
    • institute change,
    • check the outcome and reaction and
    • recalibrate your actions to suit the situation and your vision.

2- Quality Circles (satsang) – Quality Circles or Cross-functional teams (CFT) are teams that comprise specialists and generalists who discuss a subject by bringing their unique experience and perspective. This develops everyone’s awareness (pragnya) since everyone one is discussing the same subject with a specific objective (ekagrat). So, when we are in the company of like-minded people, there is sharing of ideas, concepts, encouragement and maybe, even resources and kaizen (systematic improvement).

For example – if one has an interest in aeromodelling, then ideally one should join an aeromodelling club. Since people who come there have similar interests and have varying levels of expertise, experience, interest and capability, one will find opportunities to increase knowledge, capability, skills, find resources and occasions to practice, thus perfect the craft and become a purushottama. 

Similarly, in Bhajagovindam – 9, Sri Adi Shankara says;

(thanks -https://ahambrahmasmi4.wordpress.com/2016/09/21/bhajagovindamverse9)

सत्संगत्वे निस्संगत्वं, निस्संगत्वे निर्मोहत्वं।
निर्मोहत्वे निश्चलतत्त्वं, निश्चलतत्त्वे जीवन्मुक्तिः ॥९॥
Satsangatve nissangatvam nissangatve nirmohatvam,
nirmohatve niscalatattvam niscalatattve jivanmuktiH- 9

Through the company of the wise or the good, there arises non-attachment; from non-attachment comes freedom from delusion; where there is freedom from delusion, there is abidance in self-knowledge, which leads to freedom while alive.

What does this verse mean? To become a purushottama (perfect person) is not easy. One requires extreme dedication (shraddha) and commitment for salvation (mumuksutvam) but that does not come easily. So, when the practitioner joins a group of like-minded people where they discuss and motivate each other, slowly the person is able to overcome inertia and delusion (tamas) with group support, capability building and encouragement (rajas) and strive for perfection.

Eliminating waste:

This is a part of lean manufacturing and the key aspect is to maximise outcome by ensuring minimum resources are used in the conversion.

  • Muda – means identifying aspects that waste our resources (time is a resource) and eliminate it. For example – when we water a garden with a hose-pipe, if there is a kink in the pipe, if the pipe has holes in it, or if the water is not being directed properly, the water flow is not going to be effective for its designed purpose. Muda is identifying anything that does not add value and eliminating it.
  • Mura – means removing unevenness and irregularity from activity. For example – if we are expecting guests and keep running to the grocery store to buy provisions, that is a waste of time and resources on account of poor planning. 
Is there any ancient indigenous South Asian (sanatana-dharma) practice that uses the above concepts?

The ancient South Asian lean manufacturing system is called queue (panGti) in Sanskrit, pangat in Hindi and panthi in Tamil. 

Introduction: PanGtis occur whenever there is a sacrifice (yagnya). All sacrifices have a fire because fire is a transforming agent; for instance, ore is converted to steel by fire, crude becomes diesel and petrol by application of fire. So, fire (agni) is used in a sacrifice (yagnya) to transform intent to outcome (sankalpa). Details of the sacrifice process (yagnya) are given in The Bhagavad-Geeta Chapter 16.

A queue (panKti) occurs at the end of a sacrifice (yagnya) because any sacrifice requires offering (neivedyam) which becomes an outcome of peace (prasaadam). This food is offered to all participants of the sacrifice (yagnya) by the initiator of the yagnya (yejamaan) in a set-up called queue (panGti).

A panGti is a place where people congregate for a sit-down meal. In South Asian cultures, food is considered central to awareness (pragnya). So, the attitude is that “we are what we eat”. This makes the panGti a very important set-up. Let us look at some of the parameters;

Quality Standards (aachaaram)- The food must conform to the following standards:

  • It must be served hot and fresh so that it is nutritious and there are no bacteria.
  • It must bring awareness to all the senses (touch, smell, taste, sight and be consumed in an environment that is peaceful).
  • It must be tasty (rasaaya) cover all the tastes (salt, sweet, sour and astringent).
  • It must be served in sufficient quantity but without wastage. Everyone who eats must depart satisfied (karma). Positivity and contentment are considered a benediction (aashirvaada).

Optimisation of effort and output (yagnya): This means that the chef of any pangti must cover the following factors;

  • The chef must understand food, the customer (yejaman) and his requirements.
  • He must plan a menu that is healthy, nutritious, has no dishes that people may dislike because that will spoil the atmosphere in the entire eating hall and be able to control a team.
  • The chef must have experts who know how to make certain dishes as well as generalists who can support any station.
  • The chef must know how many people will eat in a sitting and ensure that at any time during the serving process no one has an empty plate. So, he must have serving people moving at the right time, serving the right dish (Just-in-time).
  • He must also ensure that wastage is minimised. Waste is considered abhishaapa (curse) because the intended outcome has not been reached. Also, the sponsor’s (yejaman) resources have been wasted and natures’ resources which should be put to constructive purpose have been vitiated, so some other entity that might have needed it will not get it. This leads to imbalance and chaos (adharma).

This calls for skill and great management capability, but yes, ancient South Asia had a lean manufacturing philosophy and process which can be compared with modern manufacturing techniques.

School of Yoga posits views that may be contrary to accepted positions: 

Much of “discoveries” of today existed in the ancient oriental world, maybe under a different guise. Also, it is clear that the ancients were wise and full of common sense because, in addition to cognising the principles of effective-living, they found ways to integrate it into mundane existence, thereby making society a harmonious unit.

School of Yoga explains the lesson learned in Chapter 15

There is a discernible degree of confluence between the concept of Yoga and science as it unfolds. However, what is most important is that a person chooses those values from the many schools of thought that exist today (sat) that help in increasing awareness and help in becoming a perfect person (purushottam).

The Transliteration of The Bhagavad Geeta – Chapter 15 follows:

The Sanskrit words are in red italics and meaning, before the words, are in black.

(1-2) Sri Krishna said – Rooted above, branches below, the fig tree, they say is indestructible. Its leaves are the Vedas and he that knows this knows the Vedas (oordhva-moolam-adhaha-shaakhaha-ashvattham-prahuhu-avyayam-chandaamsi-yasya-parNaani-yaha-tam-veda-saha-vedavit). Below and above spread its branches, nourished by attributes, objects are its new shoots, below and roots continue the binding of action in the world (adaha-cha-oordhvam-prasrtah-tasya-shaakha-guNa-pravriddhaha-vishaya-pravaalaha-adhaha-cha-moolani-anusanthathaani-karma-anubandhini-manushyaloke).

(3-4) This has no form as such, as such cannot be perceived, It has no end or origin, nor foundation. This ashvattam is cut by well-rooted people with the strong axe of non-attachment (na-roopam-asya-iha-tathaa-upalabdhyate-na-antah-na-cha-aadihi-na-cha-sampratishta-ashvattham-enam-suvirooda-moolam-asanga-shastreNa-dhrdena-chittva). Then the goal that should be sought to go forth and not return again is by seeking refuge in the ancient primordial Purusha when performing activity (tataha-padam-tat-parimaargitavyam-yasmin-gataaha-na-nivartanti-bhooyaha-tam-eva-cha-aadhyam-purusham-prapadye-yataha-pravritti-prasoota-puraaNi).

(5-6) Free from pride and delusion, victorious over the affliction of attachment, dwelling constantly in the Self, turned away from passion and pairs of opposites, freed from what is known as pleasure and pain reach that undeluded eternal goal (nirmaana-mohah-jita-sangha-doshaha-adhyaatma-nitya-vinivrtta-kaamaaha-dvandvaihi-vimuktaaha-sukha-dukkha-sanjnaih-gachhanti-amoodaha-padam-avyayam-tat). Sun does not illuminate it, nor does the Moon, nor fire. Once they reach, they do not return, that is my Supreme abode (na-tat-bhaasyate-sooryaha-na-shashankaha-na-paavakaha-yat-gatva-na-nivartante-tat-dhaam-paramam-mama).

(7-8) Even my Eternal aspect that has become a material Soul and participates in this world with the sixth aspect of cognition and sensory apparatus due to the engagement with Prakriti (mama-eva-amsah-jeeva-loke-jeevabhootihi-sanaatanaha-manah-shashtaani-indriyaaNi-prakriti-sthaani-karshati). When Eeshwara obtains or leaves a body, it takes these just as a wind takes scent from its source (shareeram-yat-aapnoti-yat-cha-api-utkraamati-eeshwaraha-grheetva-etaani-samyaati-vaayuhu-gandhaan-iva-aashyaat).

(9-10) With ear, eye, touch, taste and smell and even presiding over the cognition he experiences materiality (shrotram-chakshu-sparshanam-cha-rasanam-ghraaNam-eva-cha-adhishtaaya-manaha-cha-ayam-vishayaan-upasevate). Whether leaving, staying or also enjoying, everything is based on the attribute. However, those that are deluded do not cognise this, only those of wisdom cognise (utkramantam-sthitam-va-api-bhunjaanam-va-guNaanvitam-vimoodha-na-anupashyanti-pashyanti-jnaana-chakshusaha).

(11-12) Yogis who strive see this dwelling in the Self, however immature Souls and those with low consciousness cannot cognise even with effort (yatantah-yoginah-cha-enam-pashyanti-aatmani-avasthitm-yatantaha-api-akrit-aatmaanaha-na-enam-pashyant-achetasaha). That light residing in the Sun which illuminates the whole world, which is also there in the Moon and Fire, know that light to come from my state (yat-aadityagatam-tejaha-jagat-bhaasayate-akhilam-yat-chandramasi-yat-cha-agnou-tat-tejaha-viddhi-maamakam).

(13-14) Permeating the Earth, I support all beings with my vitality and nourish all herbs by becoming the watery Moon (gaam-avisya-cha-bhootaani-dhaarayaami-aham-ojasaa-pushnaami-cha-oshadheehi-sarvaa-somaha-bhootvaa-rasaatmakaha). Having become fire in the body I abide as praana and apaana and digest the four kinds of food (sweet, salt, astringent and sour) (aham-vaishvaanaraha-bhootva-praaNinaam-deham-aashritaha-praana-apaana-samaayuktaha-pachaami-annam-chatur-vidham). And I am seated in the heart of all and from me comes memory and wisdom as well as their absence. And I am the wisdom of all the Vedas, even author of Vedaanta and I am the knower of the Vedas (sarvasya-cha-aham-hrdi-samnivistah-mattah-smritih-jnaanam-apohanam-cha-vaidaha-cha-sarvaihi-aham-eva-vedhaha-vedaantakrt-vedavit-eva-cha-aham).

(16-18) There are two Purushas in the world, the perishable and imperishable. All beings are perishable and the imperishable is called Kootastha (supreme soul) (dvaav-imou-purusou-loke-sharaha-cha-akshara-eva-cha-ksharaha-sarvaaNi-bhootaani-kootastha-aksharaha-ucchayate). The supreme Purusha is another name for supreme Soul, the indestructible, Eeshwar who pervades and sustains the three worlds (uttamaha-purushaha-tu-anyah-paramaata-iti-uddhahrta-yaha-loka-trayam-aavishya-bhibhrati-avyayaha-eeshwaraha). Since I transcend the perishable, am above the imperishable also and I am the highest, therefore in the world and the Vedas I am declared as the Supreme Purusha (yasmaat-ksharam-ateetaha-aham-aksharaat-api-cha-uttamaha-atah-asmi-loke-vede-cha-prateethaha-purushottamaha).

(19-20) He who is undeluded and knows me to be the Supreme Soul, he is completely wise and worships me with all sentiment (yah-maam-evam-asammodah-jaanaati-purushottamam-saha-sarvavit-bhajati-maam-sarva-bhaavena). Thus, this most secret sciencific treatise has been taught by me and knowing this, the wise become accomplished in all activities (iti-guhyatamam-shaastram-idam-uktam-mayaa-etat-budhva-buddhimaan-kritkrityaha-cha).

Editor at School Of Yoga
School Of Yoga is a single point resource for all aspects of Classical Yoga practise. We try to achieve this by placing Yoga's traditional methodology in front of the reader and eliciting his or her experience. We value everyone's Yoga experience and would like you to share and enrich other practitioners so that everyone benefits.
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